Third-Party References

Maybe facial expressions are not universal

Charles Darwin and also more recent researchers claimed that all humans communicate a basic set of internal emotional states using the same facial movements. According to a new study there is reason to question this universality.

Neuroconsult Group References

Information Systems and Neuroscience

Traditional market research used to focus on survey-based investigations. The first generation of Neuromarketing focused on Brain Imaging via functional Magnet Resonance Imaging (fMRI), which allowed for a true insight into brain activities with accurate localisation results. Finally, the new generation of Neuromarketing provides valuable information about implicit affective responses, which in combination with explicit responses are most useful for product evaluation and many further economic decisions. This study investigated various aspects of Samsung and Apple smartphones with respect to their conscious and unconscious affective impact in response to visual presentations.

Besides various interesting discrepancies between conscious and unconscious affective responses, which demonstrate that mainly conscious cognitive differences exist between Apple and Samsung, an overall outcome is that male Samsung owners demonstrated most positive nonconscious affective processing levels regardless of which brand and version being exposed to.

Consumer neuroscience to inform consumers - physiological methods to identify attitude formation related to over-consumption and environmental damage

An introduction to startle reflex modulation for industry-relevant questions of interest

Emotional facial expressions evoke faster orienting responses, but weaker emotional responses at neural and behavioural levels compared to scenes: A simultaneous EEG and facial EMG study

In the current study, electroencephalography (EEG) was recorded simultaneously with facial electromyography (fEMG) to determine whether emotional faces and emotional scenes are processed differently at the neural level. In addition, it was investigated whether these differences can be observed at the behavioural level via spontaneous facial muscle activity. Emotional content of the stimuli did not affect early P1 activity. Emotional faces elicited enhanced amplitudes of the facesensitive N170 component, while its counterpart, the scene-related N100, was not sensitive to emotional content of scenes. At 220-280 ms, the early posterior negativity (EPN) was enhanced only slightly for fearful as compared to neutral or happy faces. However its amplitudes were significantly enhanced during processing of scenes with positive content, particularly over the right hemisphere. Scenes of positive content also elicited enhanced spontaneous zygomatic activity from 500-750 ms onwards, while happy faces elicited no such changes. Contrastingly, both fearful faces and negative scenes elicited enhanced spontaneous corrugator activity at 500-750 ms after stimulus onset. However, relative to baseline EMG changes occurred earlier for faces (250 ms) than for scenes (500 ms) whereas for scenes activity changes were more pronounced over the whole viewing period. Taking into account all effects, the data suggests that emotional facial expressions evoke faster attentional orienting, but weaker affective neural activity and emotional behavioural responses compared to emotional scenes.
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